Mechoui Marriage Tariff

Sunday, August 19th, 2018


Today the musicians receive a tithe – ziyara – from local people for their music and it is this on which they survive In return they play ghaita music in the courtyard of Sidi Ahmed Sheikh’s shrine which is located in the village of Jahjouka Visitors come to the shrine – kubba – every Friday to seek baraka from the saint The musicians also fulfil a psycho-medical function for they cure the sick and those with medical disorders Those afflicted are tied to a tree in the courtyard of the shrine and the ghaita and tbel xv are played by the musicians to drive out the demons supposed to be responsible for the illness- whether physical or mental. It goes without saying that the Arab-Islamic civilisation in Spain did not reach its apogee by the sheer might of the sword but on the contrary it owes its success to inter-cultural communication and exchange initiated by the Arabs The Arab presence in Spain for eight centuries is undoubtedly the result of some sort of coexistence between people of different ethnic origins cultures and religions S Lane-Poolexx argues that the Jews and the Moors and the Persians were instrumental in the development of Muslim Spain: “Jew wherever the arms of the Saracens penetrated there we shall always find the Jews in close pursuit : while the Arab fought the Jew trafficked and when the fighting was over and Moor and Persian joined in that cultivation of learning and philosophy arts and sciences which pre-eminently distinguished the rule of the Saracens in the Middle Ages.” Iago’S hatred for Othello in particular and for the Moors in general is incommensurable and he expresses his abhorrence of them in a monologue that could well express the general feeling that was prevalent in his time:xxxv These Moors are changeable in their wills-fill thy purse with money The food that to him now is as luscious as locusts shall be to him shortly as bitter as coloquintida She must change for youth; when she is sated with his body she will find the errors of her choice Therefore put money in thy purse If thou wilt needs damn thyself do it a more delicate way than drowning Make all the money thou canst If sanctimony and a frail vow betwixt an erring barbarian and supersubtle Venetian be not too hard for my wits and all the tribe of hell thou shalt. As a result of the contact between the Muslims and the European inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula we still find today on either side of the of the Strait of Gibraltar traces of the civilisation of the other in cultural practises or in the language. In Shakespeare’s Othello the Moor is valiant courageous and faithful in his allegiance and he has proved that by rendering numerous services to the Signora of Venice as a military commander and that is why he was appointed to command the troops in Cyprus and confront the Turks He is also of the Christian faith But in spite of all these fine qualities and excellent attributes he is violent savage barbaric and vile because the general feeling expressed by the playwright in his work is one of disgust and that seems to reflect the image the public opinion of that time had of people of darker complexions and foreign origins Racial superiority of the white Christian European over other races was a very important issue for the Elizabethan public as explained in what follows by Margaret Webster: xxxvi «Non pas que la situation de la génération « beur » soit idyllique et qu’elle ne connaisse pas de nombreux problèmes (délinquance juvenile difficultés d’insertion dans la société d’accueil pour les moins favorisés les plus fragiles les plus déchirés) mais remportent aussi d’indéniables succès dans des domaines très divers elle s’affirment de jour en jour à travers ses représentants Comédiens : Isabelle Adjani Nadia Samir Souad Amidou Lydia Maoudj Smain Kader Boukhanef Mouss Hakim Ghanem Rachid Ferrache Pascal Kelaf Hammou Graia Farid Chopel Karim Allaoui pour n’en citer que quelques-uns ; écrivains : Farida Belghoul Leila Sebbar Leila Houari Nacer Kettane Akil Tadjer Azouz Begag Jean-luc Yacine etc ; chanteurs et musiciens mais aussi peintres graveurs sculpteurs journalistes hommes et femmes de radio et de télévision chercheurs entrepreneurs… » We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our website You can find out more about which cookies we are using or switch them off in settings. By Dr Mohamed Chtatou (adsbygoogle = oogle || []).push({}); Definition Of The Concept Cultures are not isolated and static sets of customs rituals beliefs and practices they are living phenomena that need input from other cultures to live and prosper and experience has shown that those cultures that choose isolation as a way of life definitely do not disappear but do remain somewhat handicapped.

He believes the whole business of love and to be the work of witchcraft and black magic and like all the men of his time what they could not explain by the prevalent logic of the time is automatically attributed to the dark forces of magic: xxxi I therefore vouch again That with some mixtures pow’rful o’er the blood Or with some dram conjured to this effect He wrought upon her For Brabantio Desdemona did not choose to live with the Moor of her own free will She does not control her actions; she is under a strong spell:xxxii She is abused stol’n from me and corrupted By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks For nature so prepost’rously to err Being not deficient blind or lame of sense Sans witchcraft. Please enable Strictly Necessary Cookies first so that we can save your preferences! Additional Cookies This website uses the following additional cookies: Adsense AddThis and YouTube disable Please enable Strictly Necessary Cookies first so that we can save your preferences! However in the Jbala region of north-western Morocco in the village of Tatoft among Ahl Srif an arabised Berber clan there is a professional group of musicians known as the Master Musicians of Jahjouka who have given the rites of Bou Jelloud xi a special significance because they believe that their rites hark back to pre-Islamic times and derive from the rites of Their origins stem from Greek and Roman influences and correspond – in the wild chase of Bou-Jelloud (the father of skins) the instigator of a fertility dance – to various fertility traditions found in most Mediterranean countries There is even a reference to this tradition in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar (Act. After the conquest of Spain by the Muslim forces was completed the original inhabitants of the conquered land were given the choice between converting to Islam or remaining Christian with the status of dhimmi and be subjected to the payment of a poll tax known as jizya and indeed many people preferred to stick to their Christian faith A good illustration of the ideal inter-cultural communication that was set up by the Muslims then is the rise to power of many Christians within the bureaucratic and political structure of the Islamic

Having decided to make a change in the troops stationed in Cyprus the Signoria of Venice appointed Othello commander of the soldiers to be dispatched For Othello this decision was a great honour bestowed upon him by the state but it caused him at the same time great pain because he was going to be away from his beloved Desdemona Having realised the true source of her husband’s pain and sadness she revealed to him the extent of her love and affection Relieved by what he heard and engulfed by her expressions of love for him he left for Cyprus happy and content. We have attempted to show in this paper that inter-cultural communication and exchange between Europe and North Africa is a social and cultural phenomenon that has existed as far back as there were contacts between the two regions We have shown also that this form of interaction has always manifested itself directly through the following channels: language; literature; migration; commerce; colonization etc Irrespective of the difference of way of life religious beliefs patterns of thinking and materiel wealth Similarly we have argued that xenophobia racism and ethnocentrism have never been a serious hindrance to inter-cultural communication and exchange In conclusion we believe that inter-cultural interaction will continue to grow between Europe and North Africa during the next millennium as the two sides initiate a new phase of partnership in the era of globalisation of exchanges. What this means in other words is that inter-cultural communication and exchange between North Africa and the ancient civilisations of Europe were so strong that subsequent civilisations and religions have been unable to erase them from the memory of the local population On the contrary Islam aware of their appeal to the people attempted to Islamic most rituals by introducing Islamic concepts in them as is the case with the Pan festival in which the character of the Haj “Muslim pilgrim” dressed in white dances around aimlessly while Bou Jelloud runs after his lover Aisha l-Hamqa. However it did not take long for this justice to materialize because right after Desdemona’s burial the Moor whom she loved more than her life regretted his act and felt tremendous loss and sorrow as a consequence Realising that it was Ensign who was responsible for much of his trouble he resolved to kill him but had it not been for his fear of the retribution of the Signoria of Venice he would have fulfilled his resolution gladly Instead he deprived him of his rank and had him moved away from his company This incensed Ensign who decided to take revenge so he first informed the Captain that it was the Moor who was behind his misfortune on the account of the suspicion he had formed of the conduct of his wife On hearing this the Captain went to the Signora and accused the Moor of the murder of his wife; the latter was brought before justice in Venice but would not confess in spite of torture Later he was thrown in jail where he was slain by his wife’s kinsmen. Lyautey was a man with the distinctive ability that only few people possess to respect the “other” in all aspects of his “otherness” in all humility In his legendary generosity of soul and nobility of origin he taught people of different languages cultures and faiths to engage in inter-cultural communication for a better understanding of each other and undoubtedly this is one of the valuable secrets of his success in leading Morocco with extreme care and serenity to modernity and development Alan Scham xlviii points out in this respect that Lyautey did not sincerely wish any form of Frenchification of Moroccans: The Pan festival is not the only cultural practice and ritual inherited from ancient Greece and ancient Rome and still is in use in the popular culture of North Africa we find such bizarre rituals as dancing around fires and jumping over them as well as throwing buckets of water at passersby during the celebration of the Islamic New Year – Fatih Muharram. So we conclude that origin colour of skin religion language and social status have not been an obstacle for Othello to reach the centres of knowledge and excellence in Europe and become an important member of society there and this is a fine example of the cultural interaction that existed then between Europe as a whole and the Southern Mediterranean Inter-Cultural Interaction Lyautey The Great cCommunicator At the beginning of the 19th century the European nations’ appetite for more colonies raw materials and markets grew stronger and especially among France Britain Germany Italy and Spain who expressed a special colonial interest vis à vis the North African countries of Morocco Algeria Tunisia. As argued above it did not matter much to the Elizabethan elite what the term Moorxxxvii stood for as long as it represented someone of “inferior” race and different religion as well as darker complexion something close to the derogatory term wog used today by the British racists to refer to Arabs and sometimes aliens in general or the term basané or bicot used by the French racists to refer to Arabs too or to people with darker complexions. According to Samuel Huntington,i as argued in his controversial article entitled “The Clash of Civilizations?” the next century will see a clash between the three main civilisations of the world i.e Western Islamic and Confucian or rather and that is what is the writer was driving at,: a clash between the Western and the Islamic civilisations This demonization of Islam is may be the result of the end of the Cold War which left an uncomfortable threat “vacuum:.ii For some Islamists like Benkirane,iii a moderate Islamic leader of the group Adalah wa Tanmiya the Western world cannot live and prosper in the absence of a potential enemy Yesterday it was Communism and today it is Islam and if there were not Islam they would have had to create an enemy of. My noble father I do perceive here a divided duty To you I am bound for life and education; My life and education both do learn me How to respect you You are the lord of duty I am hitherto your daughter But here’s my husband And so much duty as my mother showed To you preferring you before her father So much I challenge that I may profess Due to the Moor my lord In the council chamber where the affairs of the state are debated the Moor is held in much esteem a proof of that are the terms of address used to call his attention by First Senator: xl Here comes Brabantio and the valiant Moor Even the Duke addresses the Moor with much respect:xli Valiant Othello we must straight employ you Against the general enemy Ottoman. You can follow Professor Mohamed Chtatou on Twitter: @Ayurinu With time the migrants had children born to them in the countries of migration and brought up in its culture; generally speaking they are bicultural and bilingual by belonging to both countries i.e country of origin of parents and country of residence but they are also confused and torn apart between two allegiances To solve this thorny problem the children of migrants born in the country of migration referred to themselves as beur li and their culture as culture beur In this regard Paul Balta,lii argues quite rightly that the beurs and beurettes (feminine form for beur) are considered to be pernicious vehicles of western way of life and thought But in spite of this recrimination it is a well-known fact that the beur generation has achieved success in various fields: show biz theatre cinema literature etc.: liii Over centuries of human history cultures have entered into collision with other cultures either through wars invasions or annexation but they have never died out completely as long as people who represent them are still in life a good example of that is the Red Indians who after being decimated by the US Army in the 19th century have been parked in reserves with the idea of assimilating them to the all-powerful American culture But though many Red Indians have over decades assimilated to the American way of life yet the majority clings to their culture because it is a symbol of their identity And one of the main reasons for which cultures survive even in the most adverse environments is the fact that they are potent symbols of identity. Because of contact between France and North Africa through colonization and migration both French and colloquial Arabic borrowed from each other scores of words as. In 1603-1604 Shakespeare (1564-1616) at the height of his career as a playwright produced Othello the Moor of Venice which the critics believe was based on a story in Giraldi Cinthio’s Hecatommithi (III 7) a collection of some hundred plays published in Italy in the 16th century It is believed that at this time there was no translation of this work in the English language and it is more likely that Shakespeare read the collection in its original version in Italian and may have also been exposed to the French language as translated by Gabriel It might be true that the Arabs conquered Spain by the sword but it is universally admitted that their presence in this part of Europe brought prosperity knowledge culture and refinement to this country and the whole of Europe and was instrumental in its renaissance This is corroborated by S Lane-Pool in his book entitled The Moors in Spain published in 1887: xix Forget not In your haste Antonuis To touch Calpurnia For our elders say The barren touched in the holy chase Shake off their sterile curse Even today the ceremony still involves Bou Jelloud emerging from his place of concealment on hearing the sounds of ghaita-s xiii and dancing himself into a trance while flailing women with branches to make them fertile The location of these rites is a small village situated in the Jbala region of Northern Morocco in the piedmont region leading further east into the mountains of the Rif The village of Jahjouka is still the home of Pan the goat like god and his persisting presence is a challenge to time space and religion. In fact this practice is quite common in many areas in Morocco and in some parts of Algeria and Tunisia and its existence is traced back to ancient Greece and ancient Rome It used to take place in the summer at the end of the agricultural cycle when the crops have been reaped as gesture of thanksgiving to the gods for their generosity and a prayer for more fertility for the coming year. “Lyautey’S distinction aside from his exceptional force of character was that unlike most contemporary French colonial officials he was not an «assimilationist.» He felt a sincere respect for Moroccan civilization and did not think it either possible or desirable simply to Frenchify the Moroccans He hoped that Frenchmen and Moroccans would be able to collaborate in the necessary modernisation of Morocco without destroying intrinsically valuable Moroccan traditions and characteristics He wanted the Protectorate to be a genuine protectorate not a disguised colonial administration.” Othello in its entirety is but a cultural representation of the other the other here being the dark world of Islam symbolised by the black complexion of the Moor Even if the Moor had converted to Christianity and had learned the ways of the civilised he remained suspicious and barbaric and indeed at the height of his rage Shakespeare makes him compare himself to the raging seas savage and uncontrollable: xxvii Like to the Pontic Sea Whose icy current and compulsive course Nev’r keeps retiring ebb but keeps due on To the Propontic and the Hellespont Even so my bloody thoughts with violent pace Shall nev’r look back nev’r ebb to humble love? Till that a capable and wide revenge Swallow. However the most remarkable achievement of the Romans in the area is undoubtedly the introduction of sophisticated irrigation systems and techniquesvi They built aqueducts for the cities cisterns for the farms and artesian wells for the oases The most well-known irrigation works the Romans left behind are: the aqueduct of Carthage and that of Cherchell the dam of Kasserine and the cisterns of Cirta and Hippone The Romans also taught the locals techniques to collect rain water in valleys in order to use for agriculture when needed and to build irrigation ditches along rivers and streams to use the water for the neighbouring lands. Among the other Roman influences still present with the population of North Africa is a certain obsession with cleanliness Indeed the Romans built baths everywhere and encouraged people to bathe frequently and they made out of them public places of intellectual discussion and commercial transactions and political lobbying The Romans also washed excessively before between and after meals Indeed slaves passed between the beds on which lie their masters and guests and poured on their fingers fresh perfumed Later on when the Muslims arrived they had no problem as they did in some other areas in introducing the concept of cleanliness and the idea of ablutions before prayer Today it is a common practice in North Africa to offer guests on arrival to freshen up and also to wash before and after meals The influence of the Roman civilisation on North Africa is also present in both Berber and Arabic languages as shown by the following examples: In 1830 the French occupied Algiers and in 1847 they won complete control of the rest of the country except for the Saharan area which was subdued between 1900 and In the French colonial terminology Algeria was an integral part of France: Algérie française As for Tunisia it was occupied by the French in 1881 and despite Italy’s opposition they went ahead and established a protectorate under a French resident general with the bey as titular Italy took control of Libya in 1911 and began its development as a colony in 1930 when they brought 20,000 colonists and settlers from the home country xlv Morocco which remained free of Ottoman influence and control was finally subdued in 1912 by European powers and as such French and Spanish protectorates were established. It is also a known fact that the Roman legion had in its ranks many engineers who provided advice and also built underground canals like the one in Bougie It is thanks to the experience of the Romans that Berbers developed their own techniques in irrigation such as the famous khettara-s in the plain of Marrakech and the water towers that organise the distribution of water along the two sides of the Atlas chain of mountains The Romans also built several roads to secure the control of the territories and allow the exchange of goods between the people Some of the known roads of the time are: The Carthage-Thevest road 275 km long; and The Carthage-Tripoli road 823 km long These roads necessitated a good knowledge of bridge building over rivers and streams and wadi-s. Moredram ScotlandPublished. Because of the long inter-cultural interaction between the Arabs the Berbers and the Spaniards the languages of these people borrowed from. Through contact with other European cultures and languages in Muslim Spain there took place an important word-borrowing on both sides An important manifestation of this is the word- borrowing that took part in English as shown by the following examples: But the Moor is not only portrayed as savage violent and uncivilised he is also vulgar and vile and when Iago went to the house of Brabantio to inform him that his daughter has taken Othello the Moor for husband he described what happened in the most xenophobic and racist terms possible using terminology related to horses and equestrian life :xxxiii You’ll have your daughter covered with a Barbary horse you’ll have your nephews neigh to you You’ll have coursers for cousins and gennets for germans He used the basest of metaphors and idioms to make reference to their betrothal and especially its physical aspect :xxxiv I am one sir that comes to tell you your daughter and the Moor are making the beast with. It is a known fact among historians that prior to the arrival of the Arabs to Spain the Jews were persecuted,xxi especially during the Visigoth King Sisebut (612-21 AD) though in reality the legislation allowing discrimination against them had been passed earlier during the reign of Alaric II (484-507 AD) as a follow-up of the decisions of the third Council of Toledo approved by Reccared (586-601 AD) which forced Jews to convert to Christianity and forbade them to buy Christian slaves. Initially the migrants in their majority illiterate and coming from poor rural areas went to the bled nsara l with the intention of making as much money as possible in the shortest time possible and return home to build a house and start a business However after the initial euphoria this goal proved quite difficult to achieve and around 1975 as the European governments decided to put an end to legal migration the migrants were allowed to bring their families and settle down with them With the arrival of the families new cultural challenges appeared having to do especially with the education of children: in what culture to educate them Arab-Islamic tradition or Christian / secular European system? The former was difficult and costly to set up; the latter was readily available but was alienating and contrary to religious teachings. “The question of racial division is of paramount importance to the play to its credibility and to the validity of every character in it There has been much controversy as to Shakespeare’s precise intention with regard to Othello’s race It is improbable that he troubled himself greatly with ethnological exactness The Moor to an Elizabethan was a blackamoor an African an Ethiopian Shakespeare’s other Moor Aaron in TITUS ANDRONICUS is specifically black; he has thick lips and a fleece of woolly hair The Prince of Morocco in THE MERCHANT OF VENICE bears « the shadowed livery of the burnished sun » and even Portia recoils from his « complexion » which he himself is at great pains to explain.” It is a known fact that ideologies political systems political philosophies religions do clash quite often but cultures iv do not and they manage to co-exist even in the most adverse situations In fact even in the most critical situations cultures manage to set up extraordinary channels for communication and exchange between themselves Historical Background As far as human memory can go back Europe and the Mediterranean Region have had a very long record of exchange and communication as well as conflict and misunderstanding Indeed throughout known history the populations of these two regions visited lived traded and made exchanges with each other but also fought invaded and massacred each other And today in spite of centuries of exchanges both peaceful and violent these two regions stand far apart unable to benefit from their long common history The question that comes to mind right away is: why this situation then. But it so happened that Othello had in his soldiery a handsome man of tremendous wickedness and malice by the name of Ensign who was in the favour of the Moor This man had great infatuation for Desdemona and was constantly plotting to make her fall with the Moor in order to gain her favour and affection Among the brave and loyal men of Othello there was a Captain for whom he had much affection and whom Desdemona liked as a consequence. Eurasia Review does not receive financial support from any institution corporation or organization We are truly independent Your contributions allow Eurasia Review to continue operating Please consider donating today   It is a well-established fact that love and affection know no boundary no obstacle do not owe allegiance to no religion no ideology or race no bias and no prejudice but on the contrary they have always been ambassadors of goodwill and understanding Love always brings people together and bridges gaps between cultures and civilisations It is perhaps the best form of inter-cultural communication; it needs no words no etiquette and no special occasion It is spontaneous direct and clear In the following verse Othello describes to the council members of Venice the circumstances in which Desdemona fell in love with him:xlii Your email address will not be published Required fields are marked *Comment Name * Email * Website This migrant community proved to be a formidable instrument in inter-cultural communication and exchange between North Africa and Europe and indeed thanks to them such foods as tagine couscous harira etc became popular in all of Europe and especially in France The migrants also succeeded in imposing their music and educating the western ear to accept it and enjoy its melodies As such in the late 70s and early 80s the Berber singer Idir took France and Europe by the storm with his album “vava inou va” of Kabyle melodies Cheb Khaled followed in his steps and brought to fame world-wide the Algerian Arab rai music His song “ddi ddi” was the first Arab single to make it to the top 40 an important parameter of fame and appreciation in the field of European show business.   Your contributions help keep Eurasia Review up and running We do not receive financial support from any institution corporation or organization We are truly independent Please consider donating today Click here to donate:   Mohammed V (1913-1961) xlix monarch of Morocco (1927-1953; 1956-1961) was very much an admirer of Lyautey and his work in this country for his respect of the traditions and his great ability to convince and communicate with people in their own beliefs and cultural symbols During a visit to the Colonial Exhibition at Vincennes in France in 1931 Mohammed V then a young monarch paid a unique tribute to the man: “Coming to admire the Colonial Exhibition which is a wonderful achievement of your genius it is Our special pleasure on this occasion to convey Our greeting to the great Frenchman who was able to safeguard Morocco’s ancient traditions morals and customs while at the same time introducing the spirit of modern organization without which no country could. Can we in fact forget that upon your arrival in Morocco the Sherifian Empire was threatened with ultimate ruin? Her institutions her arts her faltering administration- all were calling for an organizer a renovator of your ability to put her back on the right path to direct her toward her destiny By taking into consideration the susceptibilities of her inhabitants by respecting their beliefs and customs you have drawn them to la France protectrice by your noble qualities of heart and by the grandeur of. The story from Giraldi Cinthio’s Hecatommithi which inspired Shakespeare to write his tragedy Othello is about a valiant and handsome Moor in Venice who distinguished himself in battle against the Turks and this earned him much respect and recognition from the Signoria of the Republic in whose pay he was Desdemona a virtuous lady of great beauty moved by his courage and valour fell in love with him He returned her love vanquished by her ravishing beauty and nobility of character Her parents unhappy with the subject of her infatuation tried to convince her to change her mind but in vain because responding to her heart’s desire she ended up marrying. In short what Shakespeare means to say is that all the Moor can think about is violence and revenge and that is his true personality his true nature and culture and for all of this he is but a genuine reflection of his people and their beliefs In this representation the Moor is a brave soldier and an able commander and that is why beautiful Desdemona fell in love with him but he is a fool and is considered by Iago as such and advises to treat him like an ass: xxviii The Moor is of free and open nature That thinks men honest that but seem to be so; And will as tenderly be led by th’ nose As asses are Iago a man of lesser rank and valour but of tremendous intelligence manages to manipulate Othello at will and to work him up in such a rage of jealousy that he loses his wisdom and composure and murders his wife Emilia the wife of his villain attendant enraged by his act speaks her mind and treats him like dirt:xxix The major celebration in Jahjouka is the Pan festival which takes place during l-aid l- For the ten days of the feast local villagers attend the musical celebrations and participate in its climax when Bou Jelloud emerges from his cave to seek out according to the myth his lover – Aisha l-hamqa “crazy Aisha” – identified by her goat like feet (a typical attribute of female in Morocco) Bou Jelloud’s arrival in the area before the shrine is heralded by the screams of women and children whom he flails as he passes by — a feature that recalls some of the traditions of religious brotherhoods such as Hmadsha xvii and Aissawa. Dr Mohamed Chtatou is a Professor of education science at the university in Rabat He is currently a political analyst with Moroccan Gulf French Italian and British media on politics and culture in the Middle East Islam and Islamism as well as terrorism He is also a specialist on political Islam in the MENA region with interest in the roots of terrorism and religious extremism. Both in Morocco and in Tunisia the French established a European type of administration and government alongside the traditional system of rule based on the Islamic model whereas in Algeria they only acknowledged the French system on the ground that Algeria is French and should be ruled by the French legal system only In Morocco the cohabitation between the traditional Moroccan system and the modern European one was initiated by the first French resident general Lyauteyxlvi and was instrumental in the emergence of modern Morocco Lyautey was an excellent cultural communicator he was respectful of the local traditions and all his efforts and those of his administration were geared towards the modernisation of the country without destroying in the process its culture He had an incredible sense of adaptation to places and situations as pointed out by Alan Scham: xlvii The Berbers of North Africa who by the way call themselves Imazighen “free and noble people” and their language Tamazight were given the name Berber by the Romans who called them barbarus i.e people who live outside the axis romanus and who are not civilised in other words – barbarians In the administration of the territories of North Africa the Romans were extremely flexible in their approach; they allowed the indigenous people to hold important positions in the administration and in the army as indicated by E Guernier:v Un fait parait dominer toute l’administration romaine: une extrême souplesse dans l’application des mesures législatives et des règlements D’autre part une place importante est faite aux indigènes dans les rouages impériaux aussi bien dans l’administration civile que dans les cadres militaires. Lyautey had qualities that appealed to the Moroccan Berber or Arab He was a man of decision integrity and justice; he liked a good show; he was a superb horseman and a born leader One of his greatest qualities was that he could adapt himself to new situations without restricting himself to any specific formula in his administration of Morocco: «Everything depends upon the time and place You tried one method in Indochina and it succeeded; that does not mean it is going to work in Madagascar or Morocco What is suitable for some is not necessarily suitable for others: climate religion race history- so many elements can change the problem.» Save my name email and website in this browser for the next time I comment This site uses Akismet to reduce spam Learn how your comment data is processed. Obviously there is no straight down to earth answer to this complex question maybe the answer is the whole record of history itself and not specific aspects or parts of it However there are two main factors that have been instrumental in bringing together and setting apart the two regions: these are religious and ideological beliefs and commercial interests The Roman Period During the Roman Empire North Africa and the Middle East which were outside of the Roman control and influence axis romanus were conquered by the force of the sword around 146 to 40 BC and brought within the fold of the empire The Romans imposed on the population their language their beliefs and way of life and even the urban centres were built within the norms of the Roman architecture i.e Volibilus Lixus Sbeitla Dougga etc. The Moor convinced Ensign to kill the Captain in return of a handsome reward while he would put Desdemona to death but later changed his mind Ensign attacked the Captain but only managed to cut off his leg Having realised that Othello did not have enough courage to kill his wife he suggested carrying out this dirty task by himself by beating her on her head with a sand back and attributing her death to the old ceiling of the room that he would pull down on her and pretext that it caved in And this he did but before dying Desdemona not aware of the conspiracy turned to her husband for help and her appeal was met with insults and disdain having realised what had happened she appealed for the heavenly justice. By Air Cmde (Retd) Prashant Dikshit* There seems to be widespread scepticism among military air power experts in India regarding Published.

Many centuries later the Arabs returned the Roman courtesy by paying Europe a visit that was to last some eight centuries Indeed in 711 Musa Ibn Nusayr then Arab Governor of North Africa on learning that King Roderick the last Goth king was busy in the north subduing rebellious Basques dispatched one of his able generals the Berber Tarik Ibn Ziyad at the command of an army of 7,000 Berber soldiers to make a raid on Tarik landed at the lion’s rock which was to be named after him since: Jabal Tarik (Tarik’s mountain) or Gibraltar and disobeying his commander burned his ships and made his famous speech: The sea is at your back The enemy is in front of you And all that is left for you to do Is to push forward and die in the name. The tradition emerged from Egypt and despite transformations of nomenclature and culture it has been transmogrified into the practices of the Master Musicians and their practice of the Pipes of Pan A crucial factor in this development was the fact that the introduction of Islam in the Jbala region did not destroy the pre-existing traditions Islam was introduced in 800 AD by the eastern mystic Sidi Ahmed Sheikh who allowed local practice to continue unhindered and even managed to dignify it by granting it Baraka,xiv The musicians involved were therefore able to depend on their music to earn their living. More information about our Privacy and Cookie Policy. As early as 1920s North African populations started to move north to work or study in Europe At the initial stage this movement involved individuals only but with time families and dependents joined the movement and communities started to form in the main capitals of Europe as well as in the main industrial centers After World War II in the wake of the Marshall plan Europe in full frenzy of reconstruction encouraged thousands of unqualified workers to move north to work in construction sites coal mines and assembly lines This migratory movement considered one of the most important of the century was at the origin of a new cultural reality: the establishment of migrant communities’ ghettos. Economically speaking the Roman colonisation did not improve the living conditions of the population that was in its majority made of peasants already under Carthaginian rule the North Africans were used to the techniques of the cultivation of wheat barley vines and olive trees which are still somewhat the basic crops of the. As for Ensign he returned to his country and following up on his mischief he accused one of his companions of inciting him to kill an enemy of his of a noble rank This man was arrested and denied all accusations even under torture upon which Ensign was arrested and tortured to prove his accusations Later he was removed from prison and died in his house a horrible death Shakespeare’s version is not much different apart from a surgical change of some characters’ names and some facts But with the great mastery that is his he managed to give the plot more flavour the tragedy more suspense and the characters more life and more independence and reality In introducing this play Alvin Kernan xxvi argues that Othello came about at the height of Shakespeare’s career as a playwright at a time when he acquired a better knowledge of humanity its nature and its aspirations: This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognizing you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful You can adjust all of your cookie settings by navigating the tabs on the left hand side 3rd Party Cookies This website uses Google Analytics and Statcounter to collect anonymous information such as the number of visitors to the site and the most popular pages Keeping these cookies enabled helps us to improve our website. This Captain on killing a guard with his sword was deprived by the Moor of his rank troubled by what had happened Desdemona aware of her husband’s respect and friendship for the man intervened in his favour Ensign who in his villainy and wickedness was waiting for such a propitious occasion started leading purposefully the Moor to believe that her attempts to have him reintegrate the Captain were justified by her love for him The web of villainy so neatly knitted by Ensign started to unfold slowly Thus Othello turned against his wife and began to treat her with much disdain and disrespect. Once while visiting Ensign’s wife with whom she used to spend much time Desdemona had an embroidered handkerchief offered to her by Othello stolen from her by the villain soldier and left at the Captain’s house Having found the handkerchief resolved to return it to its rightful owner so he went to Desdemona’s house and knocked at the back door and Othello who had just returned home answered the door fearing for his life the Captain fled before Othello opened the door This incident increased the level of suspicion that the Moor had towards his wife’s faithfulness and allegiance to him After consulting with Ensign who further aroused his jealousy and hatred he resolved to slay both his wife and the Captain in such a way that their death would not be attributed. T pow’r to Thou hast not half thado me harm As I have to be hurt O gull! O dolt! As ignorant as dirt! Thou hast done a deed Brabantio Desdemona’s father grieved by his daughter’s decision to marry the Moor considers the as being an act against nature He lets free his deep feelings of racism and ethnocentrism by wondering why on earth his daughter agreed to marry “what” she feared most to look on: xxx A maiden never bold Of spirit so still and quiet that her motion Blushed at herself; and she in spite of nature Of years of country credit everything To fall in love with what she feared to look on! It is a judgement maimed and most imperfect That will confess perfection so could err Against all rules of nature and must be driven To find out practices of cunning hell Why this should be.

Sunday, August 19th, 2018