On the other hand husbands are influenced by the expectations of their masculinity In Africa these expectations include being a husband father and head of the household which requires men to provide food shelter and protection (Smith 2016) Along with this "…obligation of being the provider comes the privilege and authority of patriarchy" (Smith 2016) As a result it is often the man's perception that his wife has challenged his authority that leads to the violence (Smith 2016). Dark DREAMS (1971 Roger Guermantes) theatrical trailerA young couple (played by Tina Russell and Harry Reems) freshly married and on the way to their honeymoon hotel and the taking of the wife’s virginity get a flat tire on a deserted road Because they have no spare they knock at the door of a big spooky house in the middle of nowhere When nobody answers the wife speculates that it is just as well because the house might have been occupied by a witch The door opens at last and indeed there is a witch She drugs the couple and they start their separate ways through a variety of sex and lesbian encounters The doped sexual shenanigans culminate with the husband raping his wife while she is held spread-eagled by witches and warlocks Soundtrack combines original music with eerily amplified gasps moans and sound effects. Police departments are another state institution that treats domestic violence differently than other forms of violence Police often label domestic abuse calls as low priority respond slower and focus on what provoked the abuse rather than the violent actions of the perpetrator (Schelong 1994) Also they often act as mediators in the situation because they may feel that domestic violence is a family matter and therefore not their business (Schelong 1994). “The wife does not have authority over her own body but the husband does And likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body but the wife does Do not deprive one another except with consent for a time that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer; and come together again. In most states the criminalization has occurred by the removal of the exemptions from the general rape law by the legislature; or by the courts striking down the exemptions as unconstitutional. In some states however the legislature has created a distinct crime of spousal rape This is for example the case in California where there are two different criminal offenses: Rape (Article 261) and Spousal Rape (Article 262). This doctrine is repeated in the Gospel by Jesus but with the added conclusion “so then they are no longer two but one flesh". The same doctrine is continued in the Epistles in the writings of the Apostle Paul. It is further explicated by the Apostle Paul writing, The importance of the right to self sexual determination of women is increasingly being recognized as crucial to women's rights In 2012 High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay stated that: Attributing the effects of marital rape in research is problematic as it is nearly impossible to find a large enough sample of spouses to study who have experienced sexual violence but have not also been physically assaulted by their spouse. Marital rape can spread sexually transmitted diseases and HIV adversely affecting a victim's physical and psychological health In sub-Saharan countries with very high prevalence rates of HIV such as Lesotho instances of multiple partnerships and marital rape exacerbate the spread. However the fact that people in developing countries are increasingly selecting partners by whether they are in love – a much more Western world view – does not necessarily improve the situation These types of s especially in southeastern Nigeria are putting women in more difficult positions: if one chooses to marry based on love against their family's wishes admitting violence in the relationship is a disgrace because it means admitting that one made the wrong judgement (Smith 2016). Marital rape (or spousal rape) is the act of sexual intercourse with one's spouse without the spouse's consent It is a form of domestic violence and sexual abuse Although historically sexual intercourse within was regarded as a right of spouses engaging in the act without the spouse's consent is now widely recognized by law and society as a wrong and as a crime It is recognized as rape by many societies around the world repudiated by international conventions and increasingly criminalized. The DEFIANCE OF GOOD (1974 Armand Weston) theatrical trailerJean Jennings plays the role of teenage Cathy daughter of strict parents who is sent to a mental hospital after being caught experimenting with drugs There she is gang raped by a trio of inmates drugged by a doctor and further abused by a brutish male nurse Finally she is rescued by Dr Gabriel (LAST HOUSE ON THE LEFT’s Fred Lincoln) a bearded guru who takes her to his private sanitarium Cathy soon discovers she has traded one hell for another Under the direction of Dr Gabriel who has a religious devotion to S&M discipline she is chained whipped humiliated and forced into a montage of sadistic sex rituals DEFIANCE is not for the squeamish It infects the viewer with psychosexual terror Scenes of beatings rape and torture are intense and real Produced by Jason Russell and Directed by Armand Weston. Cyprus criminalized marital rape in 1994. Marital rape was made illegal in Macedonia in 1996. In Croatia marital rape was criminalized.
However not all men who subscribe to masculinity expectations are violent In fact most men in general are not violent (Umberson et al 2003) For those who are violent ideals of masculinity seem to play some causal role in their violence Research shows that "violence is more likely among men who experience a disconnection between their personal circumstances and their emotions" (Umberson et al 2003) Evidently there seems to be some connection between the masculine expectation of suppressing or disconnecting from one's emotions and one's tendency to be violent (Umberson. Marital rape was criminalized in Serbia in 2002; before that date rape was legally defined as forced sexual intercourse outside of  The same was true in Hungary until 1997. In 1994 in Judgment no 223/94 V 1994 the Court of Appeal of Luxembourg confirmed the applicability of the provisions of the Criminal Code regarding rape to marital rape. The historical (and present day in jurisdictions where it still applies) immunity of husbands for the rape of their wives was not the only marital immunity in regard to abuse; immunity from general violence was (and still is in some places) common—in the form of a husband's right to use "moderate chastisement" against a 'disobedient' wife In the US many states especially Southern ones maintained this immunity until the mid-19th century For instance in 1824 in Calvin Bradley v the State the Mississippi Supreme Court uphold this right of the husband; ruling as follows: In 2006 the UN Secretary-General's in-depth study on all forms of violence against women stated that (page 113): "Marital rape may be prosecuted in at least 104 States Of these 32 have made marital rape a specific criminal offence while the remaining 74 do not exempt marital rape from general rape provisions Marital rape is not a prosecutable offence in at least 53 States Four States criminalize marital rape only when the spouses are judicially separated Four States are considering legislation that would allow marital rape to be prosecuted." In 2011 the UN Women report Progress of the World's Women:In Pursuit of Justice stated that (page 17): By contrast Pope Paul VI in his 1968 encyclical letter Humanae vitae wrote that "Men rightly observe that a conjugal act imposed on one's partner without regard to his or her condition or personal and reasonable wishes in the matter is no true act of love and therefore offends the moral order in its particular application to the intimate relationship of husband and wife." This teaching which has been reaffirmed more recently by Pope Francis, and has been interpreted by Bertrand de Margerie to condemn "intra-marital rape" and the use of force in more generally. Most of the Western World has been strongly influenced by Judeo-Christian Bible The paradisaical narrative of man and woman in Genesis establishes a foundation of : “So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.” “Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife and they shall become. The criminalization of marital rape does not necessary mean that these laws are enforced in practice with lack of public awareness as well as reluctance or outright refusal of authorities to prosecute being common in many countries For instance in Ireland where marital rape was made illegal in 1990 by 2016 there had been only two persons convicted of marital rape. To understand the correlations between marital rape and same-sex relationships more research must be conducted to look at these relationships within the marital context. Waterman C.K Dawson L.T Bologna M.J (1989) Sexual coercion in gay male and lesbian relationships: Predictors and implications for support services The Journal of Sex Research 26(1) 118-124 World Health Organization (WHO) (2005) Multi-country Study of Women's Health and Domestic Violence against Women Geneva Switzerland: World Health Organization Yllö Kersti "Prologue: Understanding Marital Rape in Global Context." Marital Rape: Consent and Social Change in Global Context Ed Kersti Yllö M.G Torres London: Oxford University Press 2016 1-6 Print. In many countries most often in practice there will be no prosecution except in extreme cases that involve a very high level of violence There have been many problems with prosecuting the perpetrators of spousal rape chief amongst them has been the reluctance of the various legal systems to recognize it as a crime at all However criminalization has opened a new set of problems To take an example in the United Kingdom such a category of rape was only recognized by a 1991 House of Lords decision known simply as R v R (1991 All ER 481) While most parties agreed with the House of Lords' motive in making the decision there were many who were of the opinion that the decision involved post facto criminalization since the House of Lords were imprisoning spouses for doing what was once according to the law. The issues of sexual and domestic violence within and the family unit and more specifically the issue of violence against women have come to growing international attention from the second half of the 20th century Still in many countries marital rape either remains outside the criminal law or is illegal but widely tolerated Laws are rarely being enforced due to factors ranging from reluctance of authorities to pursue the crime to lack of public knowledge that sexual intercourse in without consent is illegal. One type of forced s occurs in Guatemala (called robadas) and Mexico (called rapto) Robadas refers to "…abductions in which women are ‘taken’ during the period of courtship sometimes semivoluntarily but other times by force by a suitor who wants to start a marital relationship with them" (Menjívar 2016) Rapto refers to "…an abduction for sexual or erotic purposes or " (Bovarnik 2007) Following the abduction is often encouraged to maintain the family honor (Bovarnik 2007). The marital rape exemption was abolished in England and Wales in 1991 by the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords in the case of R v R. It had been promulgated in 1736 in Matthew Hale’s History of the Pleas of the Crown (see above). Revenge AND PUNISHMENT (1977 Joe Davian) theatrical trailerJoe Davian’s dark masterpiece about an oriental dominatrix out to avenge the death of her sister A porno photographer who beats his model receives her wrath with penis restraints riding crops and whips The heroine receives a thorough gynecological exam by a perverted doctor (a startling Al Levitsky) Bewigged Jake Teague is believably sleazy as the evil senator she’s targeting High voltage S/M interwoven with constant action All marks are real Super New York locations. Nineteenth century feminist demands centered on the right of women to control their bodies and fertility positioned consent in marital sexual relations as an alternative to contraception and abortion (which many opposed) and also embraced eugenic concerns about excessive procreation. British liberal feminists John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor attacked marital rape as a gross double-standard in law and as central to the subordination. Bertrand Russell (who was awarded the 1950 Nobel Prize in Literature) in his book and Morals (1929) deplored the situation of married women He wrote " is for woman the commonest mode of livelihood and the total amount of undesired sex endured by women is probably greater in than in prostitution." Rape by a spouse partner or ex-partner is more often associated with physical violence A nine-nation study within the European Union found that current or ex-partners were the perpetrators of around 25% of all sexual assaults and that violence was more common in assaults by ex-partners (50% of the time) and partners (40%) than in assaults by strangers or recent acquaintances (25%). The Christian religion teaches that pre-marital sex is fornication and sexual relations by a married person with someone other than his or her spouse is adultery both of which are sins while sex within is a duty This concept of 'conjugal sexual rights' has the purpose to prevent sin (in the form of adultery and temptation) as well as to enable procreation. Before a new Criminal Code came into force in 2003, the law on rape in Bosnia and Herzegovina also contained a statutory exemption and read: "Whoever coerces a female not his wife into sexual intercourse by force or threat of imminent attack upon her life or body or the life or body of a person close to her shall be sentenced to a prison term of one to ten years". In Portugal also before 1982 there was a statutory exemption. A collection of trailers clips and select scenes from rare and bizarre adult motion pictures ADULTS ONLY 18+ NSFW Five years later in Scotland the High Court of Justiciary took a different view abolishing marital immunity in S v H.M Advocate 1989 The same would happen in England and Wales in 1991 in R v R (see below) Very soon after this in Australia at the end of 1991 in R v L the High Court of Australia would rule the same ruling that if the common law exemption had ever been part of the Australian law it no longer was (by that time most Australian states and territories had already abolished their exemptions by statutory law). Marital rape was made illegal in the Netherlands in 1991. The legislative changes provided a new definition for rape in 1991 which removed the marital exemption and also made the crime gender-neutral; before 1991 the legal definition of rape was a man forcing by violence or threat of thereof a woman to engage in sexual intercourse outside of 
Belgium was early to criminalize marital rape In 1979 the Brussels Court of Appeal recognized marital rape and found that a husband who used serious violence to coerce his wife into having sex against her wishes was guilty of the criminal offense of rape The logic of the court was that although the husband did have a 'right' to sex with his wife he could not use violence to claim it as Belgian laws did not allow people to obtain their rights by violence. In 1989 laws were amended the definition of rape was broadened and marital rape is treated the same as other forms. Rollerbabies (1976 Carter Stevens) - Theatrical TrailerIn the 21st Century sex is outlawed People eat sex suppressant pills “Fuck and Suck” is a national TV show Yolanda a back bald headed woman sucks lollipops and anything else in sight Schlock 70’s sci-fi ambiance and rollerskating female androids. Thailand outlawed marital rape in 2007. The new reforms were enacted amid strong controversy and were opposed by many One opponent of the law was legal scholar Taweekiet Meenakanit who voiced his opposition to the legal reforms He also opposed the making of rape a gender neutral offense Meenakanit claimed that allowing a husband to file a rape charge against his wife is "abnormal logic" and that wives would refuse to divorce or put their husband in jail since many Thai wives are dependent on their husbands. The property to be withheld in a female was her virginity; this was the commodity (Bergen 2016) Following this line of logic a woman was (and still is in many cultures across the globe) first the property of her father then upon the property of her husband (Bergen 2016) Therefore a man could not be prosecuted for raping his own wife because she was his possession (Schelong 1994) However if another man raped someone's wife this was essentially stealing property (a women's sexuality) (Bergen 2016) In English customs "bride capture" (a man claiming a woman through rape) was thought to be stealing a father's property by raping his daughter Therefore rape laws were created to "…protect the property interests men had in their women not to protect women themselves" (Schelong 1994) This concept of women as property permeates current marital rape ideology and laws throughout. The earliest study in the Western World attempting to survey marital rape was an unpublished study by Joan Seites in the spring of 1975 Seites sent questionnaires to 40 rape-crisis centers from a list compiled by the Center for Women Policy Studies (Washington DC) 16 Centers completed questionnaire for a response rate of 40% Of the 3,709 reported calls dealing with rape and attempted rape received by the 16 centers 12 calls dealt with marital rape (0.3%) Because rape-crisis centers did not always record the relationships of the callers whether the 12 reported calls fully represent the number of married relationships cannot be certainly known. The above is interpreted by some religious figures as to render marital rape an impossibility. However not all religious figures hold this view. Further Pentecostal Christianity prescribes gender expectations for married individuals that "…reestablish a patriarchal bargain…" in which "…women acquiesce to men's authority in return for certain kinds of support" (Smith 2016) Husbands are expected to provide for the family and in return wives are to submit to their husband's authority (Smith 2016) Ultimately this "…strengthens some of the gender dynamics that make intimate partner violence possible in the first place" (Smith 2016). Name (required)E-mail (required but will not display)Notify me of follow-up comments The legal history of marital rape laws in the United States is a long and complex one that spans over several decades Traditional rape laws in the US defined rape as forced sexual intercourse by a male with a "female not his wife" making it clear that the statutes did not apply to married couples The 1962 Model Penal Code stated that "A male who has sexual intercourse with a female not his wife is guilty of.
In 2006 Greece enacted Law 3500/2006 entitled "For combating domestic violence" which punishes marital rape It entered into force on 24 October 2006 This legislation also prohibits numerous other forms of violence within and cohabiting relations and various other forms of abuse of women. Liechtenstein made marital rape illegal in 2001. In Colombia marital rape was criminalized in 1996, in. In 1994 Patricia Easteal then Senior Criminologist at the Australian Institute of Criminology published the results of survey on sexual assault in many settings The respondents had all been victims of numerous forms of sexual assault Of the victim sub-sample 10.4% had been raped by husbands or de facto husbands with a further 2.3% raped by estranged husbands/de factos. Oriental BLUE (1975 Phillip T Drexler Jr.) opening title sequenceA madam (Peonies Jong) operates a white slavery ring out of NYC’s Chinatown Brock (Jamie Gillis) works as her supplier procuring teenage runaways She sells the drug-addicted slaves to a Middle Eastern connection Conflict develops when Brock refuses to release a young runaway he’s become attached to ORIENTAL BLUE has plenty of sleazy kicks to keep even the most jaded viewers hooked High production values particularly the cinematography which captures the feel of NYC’s Chinatown. In Italy the law on rape violenza carnale ('carnal violence' as it was termed) did not contain a statutory exemption but was as elsewhere understood as inapplicable in the context of Although Italy has a reputation of a male dominated traditional society it was quite early to accept that the rape law covers forced sex in too: in 1976 in Sentenza n 12857 del 1976 the Supreme Court ruled that "the spouse who compels the other spouse to carnal knowledge by violence or threats commits the crime of carnal violence" ("commette il delitto di violenza carnale il coniuge che costringa con violenza o minaccia l’altro coniuge a congiunzione carnale"). The DOUBLE EXPOSURE OF HOLLY (1976 Bob Gill) Theatrical Trailer In R v Sharples in 1990 it was alleged that the husband had raped his wife in 1989 Despite the fact that the wife had obtained a Family Protection Order before the alleged rape the judge refused to accept that rape could legally occur concluding that the Family Protection Order had not removed the wife's implied consent ruling that: "it cannot be inferred that by obtaining the order in these terms the wife had withdrawn her consent to sexual intercourse". Given that same-sex is a relatively new concept and only minimally accepted globally little research has explored marital rape in same-sex relationships The research that is available provides some insight into sexual violence in non-marital same-sex relationships. In the United States masculinity is understood as a fixed entity that exists despite the changes of everyday life (Connell 45) It is understood as being in comparison to femininity and more specifically in opposition to femininity: Masculinity is to superiority as femininity is to subservience (Connell) Therefore masculinity is correlated with aggression in such a way that scholars argue violence is a way for men to show their masculine identity (Umberson et al 2003) Another expectation of masculinity is that men are not to show their emotion (Umberson et al 2003) Instead as Robert Connell argues the "masculine prototype" is a strong and stoic man who appears to remain in control of the situation and his emotions (Umberson et al 2003) This sense of control in Western masculinity has direct implications for domestic violence Scholars argue that some men use violence to regain this sense of control when it is lost (Umberson. Although a lot of the available research is focused on female victims husbands experience marital rape as well Little research exists focusing on the specific situation of female-to-male marital forced sex but evidence suggests that 13%-16% of men are victims of assault by marital or cohabitating spouses in their lifetime (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000) Research conducted by Morse (1995) Straus (1977-1978) and Straus and Gelles (1985) suggest that men and women have nearly the same annual rates of victimization of violence by a marital/cohabitating partner (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000) One study that looked at lifetime experiences of marital/cohabitating partner violence found nearly equal rates of victimization among men and women (Tjaden and Thoennes 2000).However these statistics convey the larger topic of partner violence and do not reflect rates of marital rape. The Committee also expressed more general views on domestic violence arguing that "Violence occurs in some s but the wives do not always wish the marital tie to be severed" and reiterated the point that domestic incidents without physical injury would generally be outside the scope of the law: "Some of us consider that the criminal law should keep out of marital relationships between cohabiting partners—especially the bed—except where injury arises when there are other offences which can be charged." The prevalence of marital rape depends on the particularly legal national and cultural context In 1999 the World Health Organization conducted a study on violence against women in Tajikistan surveying 900 women above the age of 14 in three districts of the country and found that 47% of married women reported having been forced to have sex by their husband. In Turkey 35.6% of women have experienced marital rape sometimes and 16.3% often. In a variety of cultures after a rape of an unmarried woman has been treated historically as a "resolution" to the rape that is a "reparatory " Although laws that exonerate the perpetrator if he marries his victim after the rape are often associated with the Middle East, such laws were very common around the world until the second half of the 20th century For instance as late as 1997 14 Latin American countries had such laws, although most of these countries have now abolished them. Researcher Richard Giles conducted research through in-depth interviews on violence between husbands and wives in a series of three studies between 1974 and 1976 Although the questions asked in the course of the interviews did not specifically pertain to the subject of marital rape a subsequent analysis of the transcriptions of the interviews identified 4 women who discussed sex-related violence which might be viewed as instances of either attempted or completed marital rape In all 4 cases however there was no instance a wife actually forced into having sex although this may have been to avoid the possibility of force Although the four women did not view themselves as having been raped Giles raised the question of whether engaging in the sex act as an act itself constitutes violence. Today husbands continue to be immune from prosecution in case of certain forms of physical abuse against their wives in some countries For instance in Iraq husbands have a legal right to "punish" their wives The criminal code states that there is no crime if an act is committed while exercising a legal right Examples of legal rights include: "The punishment of a wife by her husband the disciplining by parents and teachers of children under their authority within certain limits prescribed by law or by custom". In 2010 the United Arab Emirates's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children as long as he does not leave physical marks. Refresh Whether women were forced to marry their rapist or the was concluded before the violence began many victims remain in chronically violent relationships While there are many reasons for which victims of marital rape remain in their s one important reason is that divorce may be hard to obtain and/or is stigmatized (Kwiatowski 70) Cross-culturally one of the barriers that keep victims within their s is the shame and guilt they feel surrounding marital rape (Bergen 2016) or general taboos around sexuality(Kwiatkowski 2016) (Torres 2016) Lastly some victims do not categorize their abuse as marital rape in order to minimize the violence they endure This is used as a defense mechanism so they can continue to endure their abuse (Menjívar 2016). On the standing of each party to determine how this biblical principle--denial of conjugal relations--was to be effected was codified as an ecclesiastical canon in 280 A.D by St Dionysian of Alexandria: "Persons who are self-sufficient and married ought to be judges of themselves." The canon was given ecumenical application by the Sixth Ecumenical Council in 691 A.D. Ecclesiastical canons continued to adjudicate martial issues well into the modern era until all but entirely superseded by the civil courts. Unlike other forms of rape where the victim can remove themselves from the company of the rapist and never interact with them again in the case of marital rape the victim often has no choice but to continue living with their spouse: in many parts of the world divorce is very difficult to obtain and is also highly stigmatized The researchers Finkelhor and Yllö remarked in their 1985 metropolitan Boston area. Most countries criminalized marital rape from the late 20th century onward—very few legal systems allowed for the prosecution of rape within before the 1970s Criminalization has occurred through various ways including removal of statutory exemptions from the definitions of rape judicial decisions explicit legislative reference in statutory law preventing the use of as a defense or creating of a specific offense of marital rape In many countries it is still unclear whether marital rape is covered by the ordinary rape laws but in some it may be covered by general statutes prohibiting violence such as assault and battery laws Torres G Yllö K (2016) Marital Rape: Consent and Social Change in Global Context Torres G Yllö K (Ed.) London: Oxford University Press Umberson D Anderson K.L Williams K Chen M.D (2003) Relationship dynamics emotion state and domestic violence: A stress and masculinities perspective Journal of and Family 65(1) 233-247. Although by the late 19th century courts were unanimously agreeing that husbands no longer had the right to inflict "chastisement" on their wives the public policy was set at ignoring incidents deemed not 'serious enough' for legal intervention In 1874 the Supreme Court of North Carolina ruled: Her NAME WAS LISA (1979 Roger Watkins) theatrical trailer Another problem results from prevailing social norms that exist in certain cultures In order for any law to be successfully enforced the acts which it prohibits must be perceived by society as abusive As such even if a jurisdiction enacts adequate laws against marital rape in practice these laws are ignored if the act is not socially considered a crime For example in many parts of the world where women have few rights it is considered unthinkable for a woman to refuse her husband's sexual demands; far from being seen as an act of abuse of a wife marital rape is seen as an incident provoked by the wife who refused to perform her duty: for instance one survey found that 74% of women in Mali said that a husband is justified to beat his wife if she refuses to have sex. In France in 1990 following a case where a man had tortured and raped his wife the Court of Cassation authorized prosecution of spouses for rape or sexual assault In 1992 the Court convicted a man of the rape of his wife stating that the presumption that spouses have consented to sexual acts that occur within is only valid when the contrary is not proven. In 1994 Law 94-89 criminalized marital rape; a second law passed 4 April 2006 makes rape by a partner (including in unmarried relationships s and civil unions) an aggravating circumstance in prosecuting rape. According to Sheila Jeffreys in Western countries "sexual liberation" ideologies have aggravated the problem of male sexual entitlement leading to women submitting to unwanted sex not only due to physical force or illegal threat but due to societal pressure: "The force which has operated on them [women] all their lives and continues to operate on them within s and relationships remains largely invisible [ ] Such forces include the massive industry of sexology sex therapy sex advice literature all of which make women feel guilty and inadequate for any unwillingness to fulfill a man's sexual desires." While government institutional influences are vast marital rape is often sustained by cultural ideologies According to Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin the issue of sexual violence including within has not been a political spectrum issue - that is a left wing vs right wing issue - but a general ubiquitous part of the culture "The Left and the Right have consistently had different positions on rape; but neither has acknowledged rape from the point of view of the women who experienced it. At the time of R v R rape in Northern Ireland was a crime at common law Northern Ireland common law is similar to that of England and Wales and partially derives from the same sources; so any (alleged) exemption from its rape law was also removed by R v R In March 2000 a Belfast man was convicted for raping his wife in the first case of its kind in Northern Ireland. Papua New Guinea criminalized marital rape in 2003. Namibia outlawed marital. David Finkelhor and Kersti Yllo published a study in 1985 on marital rape that drew on a scientifically-selected area probability sample from the metropolitan Boston area of 323 women who were either married or previously married who had a child living with them between the ages of six and fourteen The study found that of the women who were married the instance of sexual relations through physical force or the threat thereof. Was traditionally understood as an institution where a husband had control over his wife's life; control over her sexuality was only a part of the greater control that he had in all other areas concerning her A husband's control over his wife's body could also be seen in the way adultery between a wife and another man was constructed; for example in 1707 English Lord Chief Justice John Holt described the act of a man having sexual relations with another man's wife as "the highest invasion of property". For this reason in many cultures there was a conflation between the crimes of rape and adultery since both were seen and understood as a violation of the rights of the husband Rape as a crime was constructed as a property crime against a father or husband not as a crime against the woman's right to self-determination.